The Spanish Golden Age, El Siglo de Oro, was a interval of flourishing throughout the arts and literature in Spain. Developments which were made in literature, painting, and construction, coincided with the rise and decline of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty. Ferdinand and Isabella have been very dedicated to the humanities. The Spanish Habsburg dedication to the humanities, together with Spanish society’s must cope with events such as a result of the Reformation and the Inquisition contributed to the rise of the Spanish Golden Age.
Earlier to the reigns of the Spanish Habsburgs, the Spanish had seen painting as a craft. Fortunately for painters, royal patronage allowed them to realize bigger standing in 16th century Spain. As Spanish monarchs, equal to Ferdinand and Isabella, developed connections to painters, painting began to be seen as an paintings. As painting gained further respect all via Spain, painters could develop works that will have higher have an effect on on Spanish custom and society.
Diego Velazquez (1599- 1660) is an occasion of a painter who benefited from royal patronage. Born in Seville, Velázquez Velazquez was a courtroom painter for King Philip IV (1621-1665). Following the dying of Philip’s favorite courtroom painter, Rodrigo de Villandrando, in 1622 Velázquez was ordered to the King’s courtroom. Philip’s chief minister, Rely-Duke of Olivares, whom Velazquez would later develop a sturdy relationship with, commissioned Velazquez to paint a portrait of the king. On August 16th, 1623 King Philip sat for the portrait. Every Philip and Olivares have been proud of the work and as outcomes of that, the painter was ordered to maneuver to Madrid to develop to be the official painter throughout the king’s courtroom.
When Velazquez began his career at Philip’s courtroom, he had already earned a reputation as a proficient Baroque artist. Baroque, which was a way that emerged on account of the Reformation, was associated to the idea the “arts ought to speak religious themes in direct and emotional involvement”.  The mannequin was characterised by rich, deep colors and intense mild and darkish shadows.
Philip and totally different Habsburg rulers have been good supporters of Baroque on account of present of such work was a way by which a ruler could impress company to the courtroom. “had a deep love of the paintings of painting and the belongings to indulge it on a grand scale” “Phillip IV had a deep love of the paintings of painting and the belongings to indulge it on a grand scale”.  By allowing for an superior Baroque presence in his courtroom, Philip was moreover able to present vitality and wealth.
For larger than thirty years, Velázquez alternated between residing in Italy and Spain. When he returned to Spain in 1451, Philip’s courtroom confronted many harsh realities. _____ writes,
“The later years of the reign of Philip IV have been an unhappy time for the
Spanish monarchy. By 1640, it had develop to be clear that the daring reforms
initiated by Olivares had didn’t revive each the recognition or the funds
of the crownâ€¦However someway these financial and navy disasters did not a
discernible impression on the painters of Madrid. All through this period, the foundations
have been laid for a excellent efflorescence of the paintings that occurred throughout the second
half of the century”. 
It was all through this time that Velazquez created thought-about certainly one of his most well-known objects, Las Meninas (1656), which displayed quite a few traits of baroque paintings. AVelazquez’s utilization of the baroque mannequin is displayed in his painting, Las Meninas (1656). This painting, which is taken into account certainly one of Velazquez’s most well-known objects, is prepared is throughout the palace of Philip IV. On this painting, Velazquez portrays the king, queen, and Princess Margarita, together with totally different family members courtroom. The artist’s presence throughout the agency of the Habsburg royals reveals that definitely painters have been claiming a greater standing. “In a society that equated entry to the king with extreme rank and favor, the significance of this visitation would have been blatant”. 
“Philip’s reign was equally notable for the accomplishments of the painters of Madrid” 111
“The nobility of painting had develop to be a severe problem throughout the seventeenth century” 180
“In Las Meninas, the painter no longer resorts to subterfuge. The king and queen appear in particular person, if discreetly mirrored in a mirror, and bestow their approval of Velázquez and his paintings, as does the infanta Margarita.” 184
El Greco was one such painter who benefited from royal patronage. El Greco (1541-1614), who was initially from Crete, launched the Italian Renaissance to Spain after he settled in Toledo in 1577. El Greco’s work expressed sentiments of the Counter-Reformation.
The Reformation began in 1517 after Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses of the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences to the doorways of the Fortress Church positioned in Wittenburg, Germany.  Coping with the wrath of Protestants, the Catholic Church sought to reform its practices and reinforce notion in Catholic doctrine. Toledo, which was the seat of the archbishop, carried out an lively perform throughout the Protestant Reformation.  On the Council of Trent (1545-1563), which was a severe part of the Catholic Counter-Reformation, the importance of non secular paintings was acknowledged.
A lot of El Greco’s work represented themes which were associated to religion. His work contained extremely efficient pictures of sacraments, the Virgin Mary, and so forth; The Burial of Rely Orgaz (1586) is one such painting. The theme of this painting is impressed from the legend of the pious Don Gonzalo Ruiz, who was usually often called the Rely of Orgaz. Following his dying, the Rely left money to be put within the path of enlarging and adorning the church of Santo Tomé, which was El Greco’s parish church. Legend has it that after the Rely of Orgaz died, Saint Stephen and Saint Augustine descended from heaven sooner than the awed residents of Toledo and buried the individual.
El Escorial is an excellent royal monastery that was constructed by King Philip II. The establishing moreover capabilities as a royal palace, museum, and school. It is positioned throughout the metropolis of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, which is about 45 kilometers northwest of Madrid. The establishing is made up of two architectural complexes, El Precise Monasterio de El Escorial and La Granjilla de La Fresneda. Whereas El Precise Monasterio de El Escorial serves as a result of the monastery, La Granjilla de La Fresneda, serves as a royal looking out lodge and monastic retreat. El Escorial is a vital picture of Catholicism.
As painters used their paintings to indicate views and commentary of the time, literature moreover took a distinguished perform in addressing events such as a result of the Reformation. As a result of the Catholic Church launched the Counter-Reformation in response to the Reformation which harshly criticized practices of the Church, members of non secular orders took half in reform efforts.  Via the 16th century Saint John of the Cross (San Juan de la Cruz) and Saint Teresa of Avila emerged as two foremost figures of the Counter-Reformation. Each was answerable for quite a few developments in Spanish literature.
Saint John, born Juan de Yepes Alvarez in Outdated Castile throughout the 12 months 1542, was a Carmelite friar and priest. Throughout the wake of the Reformation and the Catholic Counter-Reformation, San Juan reformed the Catholic Carmelite order.
Together with being a Catholic reformer, John was moreover a Spanish mystic. In 1577, John was imprisoned in Toledo by his Carmelite superiors who opposed his reforms and believed that they threatened the well-being of their order.  Whereas John was in jail, he spent various time contemplating life and his relationship with God. It was all through this period of imprisonment, that John wrote numerous his most well-known and delightful poetry, along with the well-known Darkish Night of the Soul (La noche oscura del alma).
Darkish Night of the Soul, a renowned, somberly-toned work of Spanish mystic literature, is a poem that describes the tactic of turning into in union with God. Throughout the poem, John characterizes the tactic of maturing spiritually and turning into in union with God as a lonely and painful journey. Throughout the work, John describes his soul’s journey from leaving its home in his physique to stepping into into union with God in heaven. Many Catholic Spaniards embraced the beliefs of Spanish mystics.
One amongst John’s greatest supporters was St. Teresa Avila, one different Spanish mystic. Oxford School Professor of Divinity, Rowan Williams, describes Teresa as “one of many important accessible and fascinating of all the great writers throughout the Christian mystical customized”.  Born in 1515, Teresa grew to grow to be a Carmelite nun in 1536.  However like John, she too was a reformer of the Carmelite Order. Together with John, Teresa based mostly the Discalced Carmelites (Barefooted Carmelites).
Teresa’s writings related to meditation and devotion to God.
“The experiences she identifies are of ‘supsension’, displacement, and a measure of confusion: there would be the consideration of affection and anticipating God, an absence of any impressions throughout the memory, and an experience throughout the understanding that could be described as an overloading of the circuitsâ€¦Teresa distinguishes this very fastidiously from the sense of warmth devotion that could be generated by an excellent meditation; sheâ€¦sees it is a co-operation between effort and magnificence” 55
Teresa’s work, The Inside Fortress (El Castillo Inside) which was revealed in 1577, is called “one of many important celebrated books on mystical theologly”.  On this textual content material, Teresa “exhorts and evokes her readers to participate throughout the search” for “spiritual perfection”, “this ultimate spiritual actuality” which was “the provision of her private pleasure”. 
Teresa’s work steered Catholics nearly about how uncover “spiritual perfection”. Throughout the wake of the Reformation it was clear that the Catholic Chruch was not good; nonetheless, Teresa’s work revealed the validity of Catholic doctrine. Turning into nearer to the Catholic god was attainable; to get there one wished to think about entrance into each of the seven mansions that made up the Inside Fortress. By collaborating in acts equal to meditation (the first mansion) and contemplative prayer (mansions four by seven), one could develop to be nearer to God.
The works of Saint John of the Cross and Saint Teresa of Avila have been praised and embraced by Catholics all via the world, significantly these of their home nation of Spain. The success of the works and the vitality of the components supplied throughout the textual content material, revealed that religious literature in Spain was flourishing. In addition to, the works have been well-known for advancing language utilized in religious literature. Marked for reaching the extreme baroque mannequin of Spanish, the works of these Spanish mystics who working to reform the Church, improved the standing of literature in Spanish society.
One among many greatest works of fiction ever revealed Don Quixote is a social & religious commentary on life in early 17th century Spain. Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616) was a Castalian novelist, poet, and playwright. Cervantes his acknowledged for his magnum opus (“good work”), Don Quixote, which is taken into consideration to be the first modern novel. The publishing of Don Quixote, certainly one of many greatest works of fiction ever revealed, led to the Spanish language being usually often called la lengua de Cervantes (“the language of Cervantes”). The satirical nature of Don Quixote led to Cervantes incomes the title of El Principe de los Ingenios (“The Prince of Wits”).
Don Quixote tells the story of a retired nation gentleman nearing 50 years of age, who lives in an unnamed a part of La Mancha (central Spain) collectively together with his niece and a housekeeper. Quixote has develop to be obsessive about books of chivalry, and believes their every phrase to be true, even though a number of the events in them are clearly inconceivable.