The Importance Of Bioequivalence

Bioequivalence is printed as ” the absence of a significant distinction throughout the value & extent to which the energetic ingredient or energetic moiety in pharmaceutical equal or pharmaceutical varied flip into on the market on the net website of drug movement when administered on the same molar dose beneath associated circumstances in an appropriately designed look at” (Huixiao et al., 2009).

The importance of bioequivalence analysis is rising due to the large progress of the manufacturing and consumption of generic product (Vetchý et al., 2007). Bioequivalence moreover assess the relative bioavailability of two drug merchandise & thus focuses on comparative drug product effectivity (Mei-Ling et al., 2001). The rationale of bioequivalence look at is the monitoring of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters after the administration of examined medicine (Vetchý et al., 2007). A traditional pharmacokinetic look at is the normal methodology for evaluating the pharmacokinetics of a drug in human subjects.

Deferiprone (DFP, Ferriproxâ„¢, Kelferâ„¢, L1, CP20) was synthetic hydroxypyridinone iron chelator isolated from legume Mimosa paduca (Clarke and Martell 1992) to be taken orally, and bind iron in circumstances of iron overload (Kontoghiorghes, G.J, 1985). Iron was essential to all species and there was no physiologic excretory pathway for this essential issue (Andrews, 1999). In circumstances of main iron overload (eg, hemochromatosis) or secondary iron overload (eg, transfusion-dependant thalassemia), accumulation of this doubtlessly toxic issue results in large iron accumulation and lead to know-how of toxic free radical harm (Rund and Rachmilewitz 2005). DFP was used throughout the remedy of Thalassemia Most important and was moreover used worldwide to take care of most cancers, leukemia, hemodialysis and totally different illnesses like detoxing metals, akin to aluminum in hemodialysis victims (Paschalidis et al., 1999; Di-Ji et al., 2004). Deferiprone was the world’s first and solely orally energetic iron chelating drug, which was environment friendly and low cost to synthesize thus rising the prospects of making it on the market to most thalassemia victims in third world worldwide places who’re often not at current receiving any sort of chelation treatment (Kontoghiorghes et al., 2004).

DFP is a bidentate chelator and has a two pka of three.6 and 9.9 (Hider and Liu 2003) with sturdy iron binding properties of pFe3+ 19.6 and pFe2+ 5.6 thus binding it in three:1 sophisticated indicating a extreme diploma of relative specificity for trivalent iron (Clarke and Martell 1992; Tam et al 2003). It was a water soluble compound with partition coefficient of Zero.11 and has a molecular weight of 139 Da which made them switch freely by the use of cell membranes of the physique. DFP absorbed rapidly and totally after oral administration. . Deferiprone appears in plasma inside 5 to 10 minutes of ingestion and Peak plasma ranges achieved inside 1 hour after administration. Meals reduces the velocity of absorption nevertheless not the extent of absorption thus decreasing the peak focus with Cmax of about 100µmol/L in fasting state and about 85µmol/L (Matsui et al 1991; Al-Refaie et al 1995a). Deferiprone is metabolized to the inactive glucuronide that is the predominant sort recovered throughout the urine (James et al., 2001). The drug was eradicated rapidly with a half-life of about 2 hours on account of hepatic biotransformation. It was metabolized by glucuronidation and about 90% of the drug excreted in urine as glucuronide. Half-life was shorter in healthful subjects of about 1.three hours than that of thalassemia subjects having 2.three hours (Stobie et al 1993).

Most constantly occurring negative effects are transient gastrointestinal indicators (GI) akin to nausea, vomiting, and stomach ache (Cohen et al 2003).


The purpose of this look at was to guage bioequivalence of newest tablet formulation of Deferiprone with Ferriprox® (Apotex, Canada).



Two drug merchandise of deferiprone 500 mg tablet have been used for invivo bioequivalence look at. One was the examine product (“Check out”) manufactured domestically and one different was the Reference or innovators merchandise. Deferiprone commonplace was supplied by Assistant Drug Controller, Ministry of Nicely being, Islamabad. Acetonitrile and methanol HPLC grade have been purchased from MERCK.

Analysis merchandise

The examine formulations have been Ferrinil 500 mg tablet Batch No……. , expiry ……, and the reference product Ferriprox® 500 mg tablet Batch No…… expiry…… (Apotex INC., Canada).

Human subjects

The look at was accepted by the Ethics Committee of BeSt Coronary heart, School of Biosciences, School of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Twelve healthful Pakistani male volunteers aged between 18-55 years have been included throughout the look at. All volunteers have been in good effectively being confirmed by bodily and scientific laboratory examination along with serology, hematology and biochemical examine. All volunteers have been abstained from totally different drug consumption and alcoholic preparations three weeks earlier to and all via the look at. These volunteers who had continuous smoking historic previous, alcoholic consumption and caffeine consumption have been excluded.

Analysis design

The look at carried out was randomized, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, single dose crossover look at with two weeks wash-out interval. Each volunteer was in fasted state roughly 10 hours earlier to the look at. Each volunteer acquired a single dose of 1000 mg deferiprone with 240 ml of water. Blood samples have been collected immediately sooner than and Zero.25, Zero.5, Zero.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, three, 4, 6, eight and 12 hours after drug consumption. A standardized lunch is consumed after blood sampling at 4 hours. The plasma have been separated by centrifugation and saved at -80°C.


The analytical methodology was modified by the technique of Goddard et al.1990 using validated HPL methodology


The pharmacokinetic parameters of every examine and reference drug have been in distinction and was determined by taking Cmax and Tmax straight from the particular person focus versus time info. Elimination value fastened was determined from log-linear least squared regression of the terminal part of the plasma focus versus time curve. Half-life was estimated from equation Zero.693/Kel. The realm beneath the main target versus time curve was calculated by linear trapezoidal rule.

The comparability of generic product of deferiprone 500 mg with innovator’s product was assessed using associated pharmacokinetic parameters, Cmax, Tmax, AUC (Zero-t) and AUC (Zero-∞) and was reworked to logarithmic scale sooner than statistical analysis. The excellence of the indicate corresponding log Cmax, log AUC(Zero-t) and log AUC(Zero-∞) between the two merchandise shall be determined by 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for a crossover design on the essential stage of α = Zero.05. The 90% confidence interval (CI) (two-one sided examine) for the variations of the indicate log Cmax, log AUC(Zero-t) and log AUC(Zero-∞) between the two merchandise have been calculated.

The two merchandise are considered to be bioequivalent when 90% CI of the variations of all parameters have been inside WHO accepted differ of 80%-125%.