Principles and Methods of Diagnostic Ultrasound

Establish of Scholar: Nur Atikah Bt Ibrahim


Ultrasound is the mechanical wave consists of extreme frequency above human listening to which is bigger than 20 KHz. In diagnostic ultrasound, frequency of two to 20 MHz was utilized in imaging certain development which affords a lot much less harmful nevertheless environment friendly methodology notably for ‘in-vivo’ prognosis.

Sound is a bodily disturbance which required medium for propagation. All through propagation, it transmits the ability forward ensuing compression (extreme stress) and rarefaction (low stress) to create a wave. Sound wave is longitudinal wave that propagate by means of medium causes the particle of medium to oscillate forwards and backwards in a line with course of wave journey referred to as simple harmonic motion.

The sound wave has its private properties. Interval (T) is the time taken for particle to journey in a medium to make one full oscillation. Frequency (f) is the number of oscillation per second (cycles/sec = Hz). Wave tempo or velocity (c) is the tempo of a wave that propagates by means of medium. It determine by density and compressibility. Wavelength is the area between two consecutive in wave. Amplitude (A) is the change of magnitude of a bodily entity or the amount of energy in a sound wave. Power (W) is the pace of energy stream by means of a given area whereas depth (I) is the power per unit area.

A story behind the formation of diagnostic image ultrasound

  1. Basic transducer growth

Principally, the formation of ultrasound image is start from the know-how of ultrasound pulses. With a view to create this pulse, utilizing transducer is enormously important. Let’s have a look on the event of the transducer to further understand the best way it really works.

Ultrasonic transducer is a device that converts one kind of energy into one different. It capabilities every to generate and likewise detect the ultrasound. An necessary half in a transducer is the piezoelectric crystal, usually used lead zirconate titanate that hook up with the electrode on reverse aspect to create the altering polarity. Skinny film operate an electrode coated the crystal and be part of it to connector so that the potential distinction could be geared up to the crystal for pulsing. Matching layer is used to reinforce the ability swap into and out of the affected particular person along with to shorten the guts beat. Then, backing supplies will take within the transmitted ultrasound energy whereas diminish the crystal ringing. It’s needed in pulse-echo principle the place transducer sends a short burst of energy adopted by ‘listening phased’ to attend for the returning echoes. Damping moreover will suppress the ringing and subsequently administration the guts beat measurement that impacts image choice. This complete half housed in casing to supply assist and insulate with acoustic insulator that forestall the transmission of ultrasound energy into the casing (Hedrick).

  1. Period of ultrasound pulse

The manufacturing of ultrasound wave will depend on the reverse piezoelectric influence whereas the detection of echoes depends on the piezoelectric influence (C2). This influence occurs in crystalline provides which have dipole (constructive and unfavourable value) on each molecule. Reverse piezoelectric influence occur when crystals are heated by the making use of of electrical pulses set off the molecules to maneuver freely and the dipole to align. The enlargement and contraction of crystal set off by the movement of dipole attempting to align with utilized electrical pulses creates the sound waves. Within the meantime, piezoelectric influence occurs when crystal are being excited by the returning echoes ensuing the conversion of mechanical energy into energy.

By sending electrical pulses to the transducer, each crystal produces sound wave. The summation of sound wave varieties the sound beam. Sound wave is generated in pulse by making use of a short size of electrical current to the transducer. Sound is a mechanical energy that transmitted by stress wave by means of medium corresponding to gas, liquid, or sturdy. Sound wave is a longitudinal wave introduced on by compression (extreme energy) and rarefaction (low energy). Ultrasound is a mechanical wave with elevated frequencies above human listening to which is bigger than 20, 000 Hz or 20 kHz. For diagnostic ultrasound, frequency with 2 to 20 MHz is required to provide an ultrasound image.

  1. Manufacturing of ultrasound beam that propagate by means of tissue

The ultrasound beam could be transmitted from transducer into the affected particular person and propagate by means of tissue by transferring their energy all through interaction with the tissue molecule. So, the molecule will vibrate and oscillate forwards and backwards about their rest place in a line with course journey (simple harmonic motion) after which work along with neighboring molecule. The propagations of ultrasound beam exhibit two distinct pattern which can be Fresnel zone (near self-discipline) and fraunhofer zone (far self-discipline). Fresnel zone is adjoining to the transducer face has a converging beam that occur because of constructive and damaging interference of sound wave from transducer flooring whereas fraunhofer zone is an area of the beam that is diverged.

  1. Ultrasound beam work along with tissue in plane of its origin

As ultrasound beam propagate by means of tissue, a lot of form of interaction will occur. Nonetheless, crucial interaction that contributes to the formation of ultrasound image is reflection which responsible for crucial organ outline seen in diagnostic ultrasound examination. For reflection to occur, the ultrasound beam that propagates by means of tissue ought to endure interface, the junction between tissues of varied acoustic impedance. Principally, the ultrasound beam encounter with interface could be mirrored, scattered or transmitted into second medium. Nonetheless, if the sound beam directed at correct angle (common incidence) to a simple interface larger than the width of the beam, it would seemingly be partially mirrored once more to the sound provide or transducer. This interface is called specular reflector. In distinction, non-specular reflector represents the interface which have small bodily dimension (decrease than a lot of wavelength in measurement). The mirrored beam from interface return to the transducer will likely be recorded as an echo. If there is no interface exists, no ultrasound beam is mirrored and subsequently no echo detected. This development talked about to be anechoic which might appear black on the ultrasound image. In addition to, acoustic impedance, the momentum of ultrasound moreover performs needed operate all through interaction of the ultrasound beam with the tissue notably reflection. Reflection solely occurs if there’s distinction acoustic impedance, impedance mismatch between adjoining tissues on account of if there’s related acoustic impedance in a single medium as in a single different, sound could be transmitted from one to completely different.

Scattering or non-specular reflection can be an needed interaction between ultrasound and tissue which responsible for providing inside texture of organ in image. It is introduced on by interaction with a extremely small reflector or a extremely robust interface resulting in redirection of the sound-wave in a lot of directions. So, solely a portion of the sound-wave returns to the scanhead. It additionally known as diffuse reflection.

When ultrasound beam strikes an interface between two media at 90Ëš angle, refraction will occur. A share could be mirrored once more to the first medium and the rest could be transmitted into the second medium with no change in course. If the beam strikes the interface at an angle apart from 90Ëš, the transmitted half could be refracted or bent away from straight line path. It obeys the snell’s laws.

  1. Mirrored echo with utterly completely different vitality

Nonetheless, take remember that for each of the interaction not the entire sound-wave is mirrored all through their first interface, subsequently a couple of of the wave continues or transmitted deeper into the physique. It may lastly mirrored once more to the transducer from interface with deeper tissue constructions to supply the echoes signal to type ultrasound image. The brightness of the pixel on image is instantly proportional to the vitality of the echo acquired on the transducer. It is will rely upon the reflector vitality which in flip depend upon how so much the two provides differ in time interval of acoustic impedance. The stronger the reflector, the additional sound is return to the transducer, the whiter the pixel on the show display and vise versa. Nonetheless, the echo returning to the transducer is much smaller than the distinctive pulse produced by the transducer as a result of the sound beam has been attenuated by every attenuation and absorption.

  1. The echo acquired by the crystal in transducer

The transducer as soon as extra performs its work by receive the echo signal. It may convert the echoes signal into electrical current after the echoes placing and exiting the crystal. Then, this electrical current could be ship to ultrasound machine for processing and present it as an ultrasound image. This course of entails the mapping of the echo pattern mirrored from acoustic boundaries inside tissues. Utterly completely different tissues current their very personal attribute echo pattern rely the scale of the echo and the area of echo origin from the transducer. A set of signal alongside the scan line (beam path) that represents single-dimensional knowledge could be recorded akin to reflecting boundaries lying at utterly completely different distance from transducer. Two-dimensional 2D image is generated by sweeping the ultrasound beam all through the subject to provide many scan line.

  1. Period of electrical signal

As I level out above, the crystal will receive the returning echo and convert it into electrical signal by piezoelectric influence. This course of occurs when the returning echo in kind of mechanical energy placing the crystal inside the transducer set off the crystal to excited. So, the crystal will convert this mechanical energy into electrical energy that may then be course of to type seen image.

  1. Electrical signal reworked into numerous stage of grayscale counting on its vitality

Sooner than present on cathode ray tube (CRT), the signal is electronically processed and organized in laptop computer memory. All through the course of, the alerts are amplified to increase their measurement. It is on account of the signal acquired by the transducer from returning echo is significantly lower than the ultrasound wave transmitted by transducer attributable to attenuation and absorption all through interaction with tissue. Consequently, the electrical current produce by the interaction of echo signal and piezoelectric crystal is also very small. Then, the returning echoes from utterly completely different tissue depth ought to be subjected to compensation for attenuation utterly completely different. As a result of the signal stage acquired counting on relative distances from reflective interface to the transducer, it may very well be disadvantageous to the reflector which have associated measurement, kind and reflection coefficient. So, Time Obtain Compensation was used to make use of differential amplification to alerts acquired from utterly completely different tissue depth. All through this course of, the echoes originating from longer distance endure bigger amplification than these from shorter distance so that associated tissues boundaries give equal measurement signal regardless their depth in tissue. The amount of amplification is designated by the point interval purchase. After that, the differ of signal measurement is compressed by using logarithmic amplifiers as a result of the dynamic differ of signal measurement is also very massive. The signal sizes which can be terribly small is also electronically rejected on account of it would presumably enhance the chance to provide the artefacts. Solely signal whose magnitudes underneath than certain threshold stage are eradicated by means of course of referred to as rejection. In distinction, the accepted alerts are organized in laptop computer memory sooner than ship it to CRT for present. Each echo signal is said to its private depth stage and anatomical place in tissue. Depth and geometrical coordinates ought to subsequently be assigned to each accepted signal. This knowledge is the be taught out of memory and displayed as an image on CRT. Exhausting copies of an image is also captured using thermal printing paper.

  1. The signal displayed as a visible image

After the signal has been course of, it should be present for viewing and recording. There are utterly completely different methods used to indicate the information acquired from ultrasound examination. The first one is A-mode or amplitude mode. On this mode, the signal is displayed inside the kind of spike. The place of spikes alongside horizontal present axis denotes the depth of the interface, whereas the vertical present axis denotes the vitality of the echo. The amplitude of the spike measure the echo measurement, whereas the place of spike alongside the time base measure the area of reflecting boundary from transducer. This mode have numerous disadvantages such as a result of it present solely 1D knowledge, the image does not symbolize an image, and it need numerous home to indicate an image on CRT attributable to amount of information it provided alongside beam path.

In B-mode or brightness mode, alerts present as a dots of varied intensities. These small dots modified the spikes of A-mode which finish in a lot much less home required for present on CRT. The brightness of the dots measures the depth or echo measurement which means that enormous echo present as shiny dots on CRT and vice versa. The place of dots alongside the time base is a measure of the area of the associated reflector from transducer. The dots positioned in each scan line correspond to 1D knowledge. When the beam is swept all through chosen a part of subject, utterly completely different dots line created for each scan line. So, utterly completely different dot line displayed at utterly completely different place on CRT displace laterally from one to a unique ensuing the combined knowledge to provide 2D image by means of which the beam swept.

Then, M-mode or motion mode is used to generate a transferring object alongside path of ultrasonic beam by placing the transducer in a set place in relation to the transferring development. As in B-mode, the echoes moreover present inside the kind of dots of varied depth alongside a time base. For stationary reflector, the dots will keep within the an identical place alongside the time base. In distinction, the reflectors that switch inside the course of scan line will change their place alongside the time base. M-mode current 1D knowledge alongside the beam path which useful in analyzing cardiac motion.

In precise time mode, a quick B-mode scanning is used to generate image of a specific subject inside object repetitively at extreme worth to create motion picture. Within the meantime, Doppler mode was used inside the analysis of blood stream and cardiac motion. On this mode, the ultrasound beam with mounted frequency will work along with transferring acoustic boundary and mirrored once more as an echo. As a result of the boundary is transferring, the transducer will detect an echo with Doppler shift in frequency. The frequency could be elevated when the interface is approaching whereas lower when the interface transferring away. The shift frequency is expounded with velocity of transferring reflector and to the course of motion.

Regardless of mode of present was used, each of them have their very personal capabilities in displaying a visible image from returning echo signal which offers valuable diagnostic knowledge for the structured being examine inside the ultrasound examination.